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Mugnolo, Christine. "Recycling as Reinvention in Early American Sunday Comics: Rudolph dirks, r. f. outcault, and the european masters." Source 43. (2024): 77–88. 
Added by: joachim (6/6/24, 11:42 AM)   Last edited by: joachim (6/6/24, 11:44 AM)
Resource type: Journal Article
DOI: 10.1086/730288
BibTeX citation key: Mugnolo2024
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Categories: General
Keywords: "Buster Brown", "Max und Moritz", "The Katzenjammer Kids", "Yellow Kid", Busch. Wilhelm, Comic strip, Dirks. Rudolph, Germany, Intertextuality, Outcault. Richard F., USA
Creators: Mugnolo
Collection: Source
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Abstract
“The American Sunday comics of the 1890s launched comics as a mass-market phenomenon and laid the groundwork for America’s syndicated comic strips. Yet much of their content and visual structures, even wholesale characters and storylines, derive from European precedents. Iconic devices, such as word balloons and impact lines, once thought the inventions of Sunday funnies, trace their true origins to European innovators. Far from derivative, this recycling functioned as a source of creative expression. By purposefully reshuffling Victorian genres and misappropriating European innovators, early American comics generated a disorienting effect. These experiments entertained newcomers while crafting surprising, often destabilizing content for the comics aficionado.”
Added by: joachim  
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