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Madeley, June M. "Transnational convergence culture: Grassroots and corporate convergence in the conflict over amateur english-translated manga." Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics 6. (2015): 367–81. 
Added by: joachim (4/23/16, 3:20 PM)   
Resource type: Journal Article
Language: en: English
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1080/21504857.2015.1060617
BibTeX citation key: Madeley2015
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Categories: General
Keywords: Comic book industry, Copyright, Fandom, Japan, Manga, Translation, USA
Creators: Madeley
Collection: Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics
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The exponential growth in the licensed output of English-translated manga (Japanese comics) and associated internet fandom have led to a growing number of scanlation sites, which post translated manga far ahead of the output of the licensees for free. Initially, scanlations had small-scale circulation among fans but have recently been more widely available via aggregator sites that earn large advertising revenues. Japanese publishers support an amateur publishing scene and its large comic markets within Japan. They took a firmer stance in June 2010 by forming a coalition with US publishers to fight scanlation aggregators. In the wake of this transnational corporate convergence, there have been changes in both aggregator and industry practices and extensive online debate among fans. Through an analysis of online fan forums, this paper traces the divergent grassroots responses to transnational corporate convergence in the context of a publishing industry in transition and facing serious economic challenges.
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