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Armour, Robert A. "Comic Strips, Theatre, and Early Narrative Films 1895–1904." Studies in Popular Culture 10. (1987): 14–26. 
Added by: joachim (2/13/10, 7:03 PM)   Last edited by: joachim (11/29/21, 3:35 PM)
Resource type: Journal Article
Language: en: English
Peer reviewed
BibTeX citation key: Armour1987
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Categories: General
Keywords: Comic strip, Film, Intermediality, Narratology, Theatre
Creators: Armour
Collection: Studies in Popular Culture
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“Armour begins by noting that “some scholarship erroneously dates the connection between the movies and comic strips to … the work of Winsor McCay” and his first animated film version in 1911 of his own comic strip, Little Nemo (15). However, Armour indicates no small degree of “proof that the comic strip and the movies were involved with each other as early as November, 1900, long before Winsor McCay” and his experiments with animation (16). Starting in “November 16, 1900,” the Edison Film Company produced several short films of Frederick Burr Opper’s Happy Hooligan character, “an Irish tramp with a tin-can hat whose innocent escapades invariably landed him in the arms of the law.” Biograph soon followed suit with short films based on Carl Emil Schultze’s Foxy Grandpa (1900) comic strip and others, including another by Opper and then Rudolph Dirk’s The Katzenjammer Kids (1897) (18). With still more research, Armour argues convincingly how in addition to the New York stage, “there is strong evidence that early comic strips … contributed to the development of film narration and possibly were themselves influenced by movies”(24). In sum, during this crucial period leading right up to 1903’s seminal “The Great Train Robbery,” Armour concludes that “films based on comic strips used a more sophisticated narrative structure than the early ones” (25). Thus “a coincidence of parallel growth in comic art [and film] cannot be ignored …”. Perhaps more than any other single source, comic strips helped to formulate film’s ability to depict fictional characters in a series of related events.””
Blog entry by Matt, 31. Dec. 2010: A Chance Curve, from Comics to Film to Television: Moments in the works of George Herriman, Buster Keaton, and Larry David
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