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Rifas, Leonard. "Globalizing Comic Books from Below: How manga came to america." International Journal of Comic Art 6. (2004): 138–71. 
Added by: Deleted user (8/13/09, 3:35 PM)   Last edited by: joachim (2/29/12, 7:46 PM)
Resource type: Journal Article
Language: en: English
BibTeX citation key: Rifas2004
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Categories: General
Keywords: "Barefoot Gen", Interculturalism, Japan, Manga, Nakazawa. Keiji, Reception, USA
Creators: Rifas
Collection: International Journal of Comic Art
Views: 54/688
The author is the publisher of the first manga – Japanese comics – published in America (1980 and 1982), the translations of Keiji Nakazawa’s stories about the bombing of Hiroshima. In this paper, he describes the failure of his republication not primarily as a result of the supposed limits of Western tastes or of Nakazawa’s supposed failing as an artist, but in relation to his situation as a publisher on the fringes of the American comics industry and to the generally cool response of the American peace movement to Nakazawa’s work. In explaining how Nakazawa’s stories came to be the first manga to be republished in English, the author illuminates a contrast between “globalized media” and media “globalized from below”. The republication of Nakazawa’s comics was one piece of a paradigmatic project of “globalizing comic books from below,” and thus may yield lessons and warnings, not only for American comic books and Japanese manga, but also for the broader potential of comics as tools for raising social awareness.
Added by: joachim  
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