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Aggleton, Jen. "Defining digital comics: A british library perspective." Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics (2018): 1–17.  
Last edited by: joachim 8/2/18, 10:41 AM
Baetens, Jan. "Graphic Novels: Literature without text?." English Language Notes 46.(2008): 77–88.  
Last edited by: joachim 7/7/12, 8:37 PM
Baetens, Jan. "What Are Comics (Once More, but Never Enough …)?." Cinéma & Cie 10.(2010): 13–20.  
Added by: joachim 12/27/13, 5:53 PM
Balzer, Jens and Lambert Wiesing. Outcault: Die erfindung des comic. yellow. Schriften zur Comicforschung. Bochum: Ch.A. Bachmann, 2010.  
Added by: joachim 9/10/14, 1:45 PM
Beaty, Bart. "The Search for Comics Exceptionalism." The Comics Journal (1999): 67–72.  
Added by: joachim 4/16/14, 9:08 PM
Beaty, Bart. Comics Versus Art. Toronto, Buffalo, London: Univ. of Toronto Press, 2012.  
Last edited by: joachim 2/7/23, 5:30 PM
Berndt, Jaqueline. "Manga ist nicht gleich Manga: Plädoyer für eine differenzierung." Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 64.(2014): 49–54.  
Last edited by: joachim 8/21/14, 2:54 PM
Birek, Wojciech. "Główne problemy teorii komiksu." Praca doktorska Dr. Uniwersytet Rzeszowski, 2004.  
Last edited by: joachim 7/20/11, 7:07 PM
Blanchard, Gérard. "Le véritable domaine de la bande dessinée." Communication et langages (1969): 56–69.  
Added by: joachim 2/24/13, 10:17 PM
Bouyer, Sylvain. "Comics and Specificity: Concerning an article written in 1986." The French Comics Theory Reader. Eds. Ann Miller and Bart Beaty. Studies in European Comics and Graphic Novels. Leuven: Leuven Univ. Press, 2014. 83–91.  
Added by: joachim 8/31/20, 10:47 AM
Bouyer, Sylvain. "There is no Specificity at the Number you have Dialled." The French Comics Theory Reader. Eds. Ann Miller and Bart Beaty. Studies in European Comics and Graphic Novels. Leuven: Leuven Univ. Press, 2014. 75–81.  
Added by: joachim 8/31/20, 10:41 AM
Brienza, Casey E. "Paratexts in Translation: Reinterpreting “manga” for the united states." International Journal of the Book 6.(2009): 13–20.  
Last edited by: joachim 10/2/09, 8:31 PM
Buck, Louisa. "Defining the British Political Cartoon." Framescapes. Graphic Narrative Intertexts. Eds. Mikhail Peppas and Sanabelle Ebrahim. Oxford: Inter-Disciplinary Pr, 2016. 39–49.  
Added by: joachim 1/20/18, 5:27 PM
Carrier, David. What Is a Comic? A brief sketch of a new answer to that old question. Comiqheft / Comiqbook. Bochum: Ch.A. Bachmann, 2012.  
Added by: joachim 6/22/12, 10:16 PM
Cohn, Neil. "Un-Defining “Comics”: Separating the cultural from the structural in comics." International Journal of Comic Art 7.(2005): 236–48.  
Last edited by: Deleted user 6/23/12, 12:04 PM
Coogan, Peter. "The Definition of the Superhero." Super/Heroes. From Hercules to Superman. Eds. Wendy Haslem, Angela Ndalianis and Chris Mackie. Washington: New Academia Publishing, 2007. 21–36.  
Last edited by: joachim 9/4/10, 4:37 PM
Coogan, Peter. "The Definition of the Superhero." A Comics Studies Reader. Eds. Jeet Heer and Kent Worcester. Jackson: Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2009. 77–93.  
Added by: joachim 1/3/11, 1:15 AM
Cook, Roy T. "Do Comics Require Pictures? Or why batman #663 is a comic." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 69.(2011): 285–96.  
Last edited by: joachim 11/22/12, 10:23 PM
Dath, Dietmar. Superhelden: 100 seiten. Reclam 100 Seiten. Stuttgart: Reclam, 2016.  
Added by: joachim 2/15/17, 4:58 PM
Delany, Samuel R. "The Politics of Paraliterary Criticism." Shorter Views. Queer Thoughts & The Politics of the Paraliterary. Hanover, London: Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1999. 218–70.  
Added by: joachim 1/8/11, 9:13 AM
Dolle-Weinkauff, Bernd. "What Are »Historical Comics«?  On historical storytelling in comics, manga and graphic novels." Geschichte im Comic. Befunde – Theorien – Erzählweisen. Ed. Bernd Dolle-Weinkauff. Berlin: Ch.A. Bachmann, 2018. 11–28.  
Last edited by: Okwuchi Mba 8/21/18, 6:18 PM
Fischer, Jan. Comic plus X: Anmerkungen zu den umrissen der graphic novel. Schriftenreihe Essays zur Kinderliteratur. Berlin: Autumnus, 2010.  
Last edited by: joachim 12/21/16, 11:36 AM
Fortress, Karl E. "The Comics as Non-Art." The Funnies. An American Idiom. Eds. David Manning White and Robert H. Abel. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1963. 111–12.  
Last edited by: joachim 7/29/09, 2:57 PM
Foster, John. "Picture books as graphic novels and vice versa: The australian experience." Bookbird 49.(2011): 68–75.  
Last edited by: joachim 9/7/12, 12:59 PM
Gan, Sheuo Hui. "To Be or Not to Be – Anime: The controversy in japan over the “anime” label." Animation Studies 2010. Accessed 19 April. 2011. <http://journal.animatio ... over-the-“anime”-label/>.  
Last edited by: joachim 8/29/11, 7:32 PM
Gavaler, Chris. "Refining the Comics Form." European Comic Art 10.(2017): 1–23.  
Added by: joachim 12/11/17, 2:24 PM
Gavaler, Chris. The Comics Form: The art of sequenced images. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2022.  
Last edited by: joachim 7/22/22, 5:02 PM
Groensteen, Thierry. "De l’art séquentiel à l’art ludique." Textimage Varia 3 2013. Accessed 26 July. 2014. <http://www.revue-textim ... aria_3/groensteen1.html>.  
Added by: joachim 7/26/14, 8:01 AM
Groensteen, Thierry. "The Impossible Definition." A Comics Studies Reader. Eds. Jeet Heer and Kent Worcester. Jackson: Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2009. 124–31.  
Added by: joachim 1/3/11, 1:40 AM
Grünewald, Dietrich. "Comics und das Prinzip Bildgeschichte: Zur theorie der bildgeschichte als eigenständige kunstform." Medien & Zeit 16.(2001): 4–13.  
Last edited by: joachim 7/30/11, 4:00 PM
Grünewald, Dietrich. "Das Prinzip Bildgeschichte." 2006. Accessed 25 July. 2009. <http://www.comicforschu ... ov/06nov_gruenewald.pdf>.  
Last edited by: joachim 7/25/09, 11:39 PM
Grünewald, Dietrich. "The Picture Story Principle." International Journal of Comic Art 14.(2012): 171–97.  
Added by: joachim 7/22/12, 10:01 PM
Grünewald, Dietrich. "Das Prinzip Bildgeschichte: Konstitutiva und variablen einer kunstform." Struktur und Geschichte der Comics. Beiträge zur Comicforschung. Ed. Dietrich Grünewald. Bochum: Ch.A. Bachmann, 2010. 11–31.  
Added by: joachim 6/7/10, 11:54 PM
Gubern, Román. "Et originalt og komplekst sprog." MedieKultur 30 1999. Accessed 26 November. 2009. <http://ojs.statsbibliot ... ultur/article/view/1145>.  
Last edited by: joachim 1/20/10, 2:11 AM
Hague, Ian. "A Defining Problem." Comics & Politik. Comics & Politics. Ed. Stephan Packard. Bochum: Ch.A. Bachmann, 2014. 73–88.  
Last edited by: Okwuchi Mba 3/21/19, 2:41 PM
Hangartner, Urs. "»Sequential art to teach something specific«: Sachcomics – definitorisches, historisches, aktuelles." Wissen durch Bilder. Sachcomics als Medien von Bildung und Information. Eds. Urs Hangartner, Felix Keller and Dorothea Oechslin. Kultur- und Medientheorie. Bielefeld: Transcript, 2013. 13–42.  
Added by: joachim 2/22/18, 5:15 PM
Harvey, Robert C. "The Aesthetics of the Comic Strip." Journal of Popular Culture 12.(1979): 640–52.  
Last edited by: joachim 4/5/13, 11:33 AM
Harvey, Robert C. "Describing and Discarding »Comics« as an Impotent Act of Philosophical Rigor." Comics as Philosophy. Ed. Jeff McLaughlin. Jackson: Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2005. 14–26.  
Added by: joachim 8/5/09, 9:38 AM
Hatfield, Charles. "Defining Comics in the Classroom; or, The Pros and Cons of Unfixability." Teaching the Graphic Novel. Ed. Stephen E. Tabachnick. Options for Teaching. New York: The Modern Language Assoc. of America, 2009. 19–27.  
Added by: joachim 9/14/10, 12:04 AM
Hayman, Greg and Henry John Pratt. "What are Comics?." Aesthetics. A Reader in Philosophy of the Arts. Eds. David Goldblatt and Lee B. Brown. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, 2005. 419–24.  
Last edited by: joachim 10/7/13, 6:29 PM
Hein, Michael. "Zwischen Panel und Strip: Auf der suche nach der ausgelassenen zeit." Ästhetik des Comic. Eds. Michael Hein, Michael Hüners and Torsten Michaelsen. Berlin: Erich Schmidt, 2002. 51–58.  
Last edited by: joachim 2/5/11, 5:43 PM
Herbers, Martin R. "Comicanalyse: Bilder, wörter und sequenzen." Die Entschlüsselung der Bilder. Methoden zur Erforschung visueller Kommunikation. Ein Handbuch. Eds. Thomas Petersen and Clemens Schwender. Köln: Halem, 2011. 72–86.  
Added by: joachim 4/16/14, 4:10 PM
Herd, Damon. "Dieter Roth’s Solo Scenes and the Comics Art World." The Comics Grid 3.4 2013. Accessed 20 June. 2016. <>.  
Added by: joachim 6/20/16, 7:35 PM
Hescher, Achim. "Analyzing Graphic Novels in Terms of Complexity: A typology." Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik 60.(2012): 335–60.  
Last edited by: joachim 12/17/14, 3:25 PM
Hescher, Achim. "Classical Categories, Prototypes, and the Graphic Novel." International Journal of Comic Art 16.(2014): 384–401.  
Added by: joachim 8/11/17, 4:39 PM
Hescher, Achim. Reading Graphic Novels: Genre and narration. Narratologia. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2016.  
Last edited by: joachim 10/12/16, 8:00 PM
Holbo, John. "Redefining Comics." The Art of Comics. A Philosophical Approach. Eds. Aaron Meskin and Roy T. Cook. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. 3–30.  
Added by: joachim 4/16/16, 5:28 PM
Horrocks, Dylan. "Inventing Comics: Scott mccloud’s definition of comics." The Comics Journal (2001): 29–39.  
Added by: joachim 2/9/10, 5:34 PM
Horus. "Im Comic erweckt." Plaque (2007): 7–15.  
Added by: joachim 10/4/12, 5:10 PM
Joseph, Michael. "Seeing the Visible Book: How graphic novels resist reading." Children’s Literature Association Quarterly 37.(2012): 454–67.  
Added by: joachim 9/16/14, 1:42 PM
Kacsuk, Zoltan. "Re-Examining the “What is Manga” Problematic: The tension and interrelationship between the “style” versus “made in japan” positions." Arts 7.3 2018. Accessed 11 November. 2018. <>.  
Last edited by: joachim 6/28/20, 11:43 AM
Kuskin, William. "Introduction: Continuity in Literary Form and History." English Language Notes 46.(2008): 5–13.  
Last edited by: joachim 6/25/10, 10:39 AM
Kyle, Richard. "The Future of “Comics”." K-A CAPA alpha (1964): 3–4.  
Last edited by: joachim 3/10/17, 5:48 PM
Labio, Catherine. "What’s in a Name? The academic study of comics and the “graphic novel”." Cinema Journal 50.(2011): 123–26.  
Added by: joachim 7/2/11, 1:48 PM
Meskin, Aaron. "Defining Comics?." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65.(2007): 369–79.  
Last edited by: joachim 2/8/10, 11:48 AM
Meskin, Aaron. "Comics as Literature?." British Journal of Aesthetics 49.(2009): 219–39.  
Last edited by: joachim 9/30/12, 4:06 PM
Meskin, Aaron. "The Ontology of Comics." The Art of Comics. A Philosophical Approach. Eds. Aaron Meskin and Roy T. Cook. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. 31–46.  
Added by: joachim 11/12/12, 11:29 PM
Miller, Ann. "Bande dessinée: a disputed centenary." French Cultural Studies 10.(1999): 67–87.  
Last edited by: joachim 1/5/10, 12:07 PM
Miodrag, Hannah. Comics and Language: Reimagining critical discourse on the form. Jackson: Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2013.  
Last edited by: joachim 9/17/19, 5:57 PM
Miodrag, Hannah. "Origins and Definitions: Arguments for a non-essentialist approach." International Journal of Comic Art 17.(2015): 45–56.  
Added by: joachim 8/4/15, 10:26 AM
Miyamoto, Hirohito. "The Formation of an Impure Genre: On the origins of manga." Review of Japanese Culture and Society 14.(2002): 39–48.  
Last edited by: joachim 5/30/12, 4:30 PM
Moula, Evangelia and Louiza Christodoulidou. "Graphic Novels as Self-Conscious Contemplative Metatexts: Redefining comics and participating in theoretical discourse." Journal of Literature and Art Studies 8.(2018): 181–89.  
Added by: joachim 9/27/20, 12:43 PM
Nakamura, Yuko. "What Does the “Sky” Say? – Distinctive Characteristics of Manga and What the Sky Represents in It." International Journal of Comic Art 12.(2010): 487–508.  
Added by: joachim 6/13/11, 12:43 PM
Nel, Pilip. "Same Genus, Different Species? Comics and picture books." Children’s Literature Association Quarterly 37.(2012): 445–53.  
Added by: joachim 9/16/14, 1:32 PM
Niehaus, Michael. "Stehende Figur: Mikro-narration und serialität im frühen comic strip." Kulturen des Kleinen. Mikroformate in Literatur, Kunst und Medien. Eds. Sabiene Autsch, Claudia Öhlschläger and Leonie Süwolto. München: Fink, 2014. 265–81.  
Added by: joachim 5/14/16, 2:38 PM
Nodelman, Perry. "Picture Book Guy Looks at Comics: Structural differences in two kinds of visual narrative." Children’s Literature Association Quarterly 37.(2012): 436–44.  
Added by: joachim 9/16/14, 12:44 PM
Packard, Stephan. "Medium, Form, Erzählung? Zur problematischen frage: »was ist ein comic?«." Comics und Graphic Novels. Eine Einführung. Eds. Julia Abel and Christian Klein. Stuttgart: Metzler, 2015. 56–76.  
Last edited by: joachim 4/23/16, 8:35 AM
Packard, Stephan. "Erzählen Comics?." Erzählen im Comic. Beiträge zur Comicforschung. Eds. Otto Brunken and Felix Giesa. Bochum: Ch.A. Bachmann, 2013. 17–31.  
Last edited by: joachim 2/5/14, 1:08 PM
Palandt, Ralf. "Comics – Geschichte, Struktur, Interpretation." Visuelle Medien im DaF-Unterricht. Ed. Marc Hieronimus. Materialien Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Göttingen: Universitätsverl. Göttingen, 2014. 77–118.  
Added by: joachim 10/22/14, 5:28 PM
Platthaus, Andreas. "Fumetti – Der Comic schwebt zwischen den Extremen." Die Schönheiten des Populären. Ästhetische Erfahrung der Gegenwart. Ed. Kaspar Maase. Frankfurt am Main: Campus, 2008. 133–56.  
Added by: joachim 9/5/09, 12:59 PM
Pratt, Henry John. "Relating Comics, Cartoons, and Animation." Aesthetics. A Reader in Philosophy of the Arts. Eds. David Goldblatt and Lee B. Brown. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, 2010. 369–73.  
Last edited by: joachim 10/7/13, 6:33 PM
Romero-Jódar, Andrés. "Comic Books and Graphic Novels in their Generic Context: Towards a definition and classification of narrative iconical texts." Atlantis. Journal of the Spanish Association of Anglo-American Studies 35.(2013): 117–35.  
Added by: joachim 6/23/13, 11:08 PM
Rothman, Alexander. "What is Comics Poetry?." Indiana Review 37.1 2015. Accessed 16 October. 2020. <https://indianareview.o ... y-by-alexander-rothman/>.  
Last edited by: joachim 10/17/20, 1:02 PM
Rudrum, David. "From Narrative Representation to Narrative Use: Towards the limits of definition." Narrative 13.(2005): 195–204.  
Last edited by: joachim 6/7/11, 3:05 PM
Sackmann, Eckart. "Comics sind nicht nur komisch: Zur benennung und definition." Deutsche Comicforschung 4.(2008): 7–16.  
Last edited by: joachim 12/3/09, 10:49 PM
Sackmann, Eckart. "Comic: Kommentierte definition." Deutsche Comicforschung 6.(2010): 6–9.  
Added by: joachim 12/3/09, 10:51 PM
Seeßlen, Georg. "Rückkehr und Erinnerung: Zehn variationen der neunten kunst." Graphic Novels. Eds. Hermann Korte and Andreas C. Knigge. Text + Kritik Sonderband. München: edition text + kritik, 2017. 5–36.  
Last edited by: joachim 11/16/19, 7:15 PM
Smolderen, Thierry. Naissances de la bande dessinée: De william hogarth à winsor mccay. Bruxelles: Les Impressions Nouvelles, 2009.  
Last edited by: joachim 8/16/13, 4:43 PM
Smolderen, Thierry. "A Chapter on Methodology." SIGNs. Studies in Graphic Narratives (2011): 1–23.  
Added by: joachim 6/27/14, 11:26 AM
Smolderen, Thierry. The Origins of Comics: From william hogarth to winsor mccay. Jackson: Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2014.  
Last edited by: joachim 4/1/14, 2:25 PM
Strömberg, Fredrik. Vad är tecknade serier? En begreppsanalys. Magister Lämpels Bibliotek. Åkarp: Seriefrämjandet, 2003.  
Last edited by: joachim 2/16/12, 11:50 AM
Szawerna, Michał. "On Developing a Cognitive Account of Comics." Language, Thought and Education: Across Systems. Eds. Marek Kuczyński and Leszek Szymański. Zielona Góra: Oficyna Wydawnicza Uniwersytetu Zielonogórskiego, 2013. 131–47.  
Added by: joachim 3/30/22, 10:52 AM
Vogel, Steffen. "Graphic Novels oder Der Siegeszug des Comics." Blätter für deutsche und internationale Politik (2016): 111–20.  
Added by: joachim 4/21/16, 8:49 AM
Vollmar, Rob. Discovering the Elephant. Southwest Conference on Christianity and Literature. “Reaching Out Without Dumbing Down: The Clash of Tradition and Innovation in Literary and Theological Studies”: Southern Nazarene University, Bethany, 30 September—1 October, 2004.  
Added by: joachim 12/2/12, 4:16 PM
Wagemanns, Christina. "»Superhelden« in Literatur und Film." Magisterarbeit M.A. Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, 2011.  
Added by: joachim 10/13/11, 10:36 AM
Ward, Paul. "Defining “Animation”: The animated film and the emergence of the film bill." Scope 2000. Accessed 6 April. 2016. <http://www.nottingham.a ... /december-2000/ward.pdf>.  
Added by: joachim 4/6/16, 10:42 PM
Wells, Brian. "Frame of reference: Toward a definition of animation." Animation Practice, Process & Production 1.(2011): 11–32.  
Added by: joachim 6/29/14, 9:30 AM
Wessely, Christian. "On the History and Hermeneutics of Comics." Journal for Religion, Film and Media 3.1 2017. Accessed 14 October. 2017. <>.  
Added by: joachim 10/14/17, 11:20 AM
Widendaële, Alexandre. "Le phénomène d’athorybie dans le cinéma muet et la bande dessinée." Interférences littéraires / Literaire interferenties 11 2013. Accessed 7 July. 2014. <>.  
Last edited by: joachim 7/7/14, 7:13 PM
Wiesing, Lambert. "Die Sprechblase: Reale schrift im bild." Outcault. Die Erfindung des Comic. yellow. Schriften zur Comicforschung. Bochum: Ch.A. Bachmann, 2010. 35–62.  
Last edited by: joachim 9/10/14, 2:08 PM
Wiesing, Lambert. "Die Sprechblase: Reale schrift im bild." Realitätseffekte. Ästhetische Repräsentation des Alltäglichen im 20. Jahrhundert. Ed. Alexandra Kleihues. München: Fink, 2008. 25–46.  
Added by: joachim 3/24/10, 2:39 AM
Wilde, Lukas R. A. "Was unterscheiden Comic-›Medien‹?." Closure 1 2014. Accessed 11 November. 2014. <>.  
Added by: joachim 3/14/16, 3:18 AM
Wilde, Lukas R. A. "Comic." Glossar der Bildphilosophie 2016. Accessed 14 May. 2016. <http://www.gib.uni-tueb ... r/index.php?title=Comic>.  
Added by: joachim 5/14/16, 7:58 AM
Zanfei, Anna. "Defining Webcomics and Graphic Novels." International Journal of Comic Art 10.(2008): 55–61.  
Added by: Deleted user 12/7/09, 3:21 AM
Zöhrer, Andrea. Wenn Comics das Papier verlassen: Über new york und brüssel im comic und das comic in brüssel. Film – Medium – Diskurs. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2012.  
Last edited by: joachim 5/15/19, 3:59 PM
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