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Jüngst, Heike Elisabeth. "Japanese Comics in Germany." Perspectives. Studies in Translatology 12. (2004): 83–105. 
Added by: joachim (7/20/09, 1:28 AM)   Last edited by: joachim (10/1/10, 3:57 AM)
Resource type: Journal Article
Language: en: English
Peer reviewed
DOI: 10.1080/0907676X.2004.9961493
BibTeX citation key: Jungst2004a
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Categories: General
Keywords: Germany, Interculturalism, Manga, Reception, Translation
Creators: Jüngst
Collection: Perspectives. Studies in Translatology
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Translating manga, Japanese comics, into a European language, in this case German, involves even more complex translation decisions than translating comics from one European language into another. These decisions concern words as well as pictures. Manga are written back to front; the text in the speech balloons must be read top to bottom (in a vertical direction) and right to left. In contrast to European or American comics, manga are black and white. Over the years, certain translation standards have developed for translating manga into German. Many of these standards have more to do with the demands of fan groups or with publishers' decisions than they do with translators' decisions. They influence the style of the translations and shape translation standards. Twenty years ago, manga were ‘Europeanised’ in translation. Today, feigned authenticity corresponds to the expectations of the readers.
Added by: joachim  
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